What is the meaning of contingent liabilities?

What is the meaning of contingent liabilities and its examples ?

A contingent liability is a liability or a potential loss that may occur in the future depending on the outcome of a specific event. 

A contingent liability is recorded if the contingency is likely and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated.

 

If the amount can be estimated, the company sets aside that amount separately to be paid out when the liability arises. Contingent liability as a term does not apply only to companies, but to individuals as well.

Suppose a company might be in the middle of a lawsuit and your lawyer thinks that the other party has a strong case which could potentially lead to damages worth Rs 500000.

In that case, the company would book that amount as contingent liability on its balance sheet.

On the other hand, if the lawyer or the legal department thinks that the other party does not have a very strong case in hand. They would advise the firm not to make any provision of a contingent liability.

When the probability of a contingent liability is low then is no disclosure is required in the books of accounts.

Accounting Rules for Contingent Liability

  • A contingent liability should not itself be recognized in the statement of financial position.
  • A contingent liability should be disclosed only under notes to financial statements unless the possibilities of a transfer of economic benefits are remote.

Example of contigent liabilities

contingent liabilities example

  • Guarantees and counter guarantees are given by a company..
  • Product warranty.
  • Shareholders guarantee.
  • Letter of credit issued.
  • Potential adverse judgment (cases regarding any financial dispute).

When to Recognize a Contingent Liability?

Probable


Under this scenario, contingent Liability is recorded only when it is probable that the loss will occur, and you can reasonably estimate the amount of loss. Here, “Probable” means that the future event is likely to occur.

Therefore, it is also important to describe the liability in the footnotes that accompany the financial statements.

Possible


Here, contingent liabilities are recognized only when the liability is reasonably possible to estimate and not probable.

Here, “Reasonably possible” means that the chance for occurrence of an event is more than remote but less than likely.

To further simplify, the loss due to future events is not likely to happen but not necessarily be considered as unlikely. It could be a situation where the liability is probable, but the amount couldn’t be estimated.

Under this situation, the preparers of financial statements should disclose the existence of contingent Liability in the notes accompanying such financial statements

Remote


In this scenario, the contingent liability is not recorded or disclosed if the probability of its occurrence is remote. Here, ‘remote’ means the contingencies aren’t likely to occur and aren’t reasonably possible.

Journal entry for contingent liability

Taking the example lawsuit filed on X company where company violating rules. customer file a lawsuit of Rs. 3000000 and in final judgment company pay  Rs 1000000 to its customer.

The lawsuit was considered as a contingent liability in the

.

Prepare journal entries for the year ending 2021, assuming

 it is probable that X company  will be liable to pay an amount of Rs 2000000

Prepare journal entries for the year ending 2021, assuming it is not probable that X company will be liable to  pay any amount.

Considering no other pending lawsuits prepare journal entries for the year ending 2021, where X Company lost the lawsuit and has to pay Rs 1000000.

#1 – The Amount is Estimated, and the likelihood of Occurrence is High

Contingent Liabilities Example 1

Lawsuit loss A/c dr

2000000

   To law suit liability

   200000

  

#2 – The Probability of Occurrence is Very Less or Nil

Journal entries will not be passed. The loss is not accrued because it is not probable that liability will arise soon.

Full disclosure should be made in the footnotes of the financial statements because liability might not arise shortly, but there is a possibility of its occurrence in later years.

#3 – Payment of Lost Lawsuit

Lawsuit liability dr

1000000

   To cash A/c

   1000000

  

Where are the contingent liabilities shown in a balance sheet?

Qualifying contingent liabilities are recorded as an expense on the income statement and a liability on the balance sheet.
If the contingent loss is remote, meaning it has less than a 50% chance of occurring, the liability should not be reflected on the balance sheet and shown in the foot note of balance sheet.

examples of contingent liabilities

Product Warranties


Electronic device retailers typically provide a one-year guarantee with their items. While the business believes that the majority of items will operate well within the warranty term, they must take into consideration any potential defects or issues that might develop after the sale. Until consumers actually file warranty claims, the expense of fulfilling those claims will be regarded as a contingent obligation.


Pending Legal Claim


Presently Pending Lawsuits: Former employees are suing a corporation in several instances for wrongful termination. Since the results of these lawsuits are unpredictable, the company’s legal team makes an educated guess as to its probable responsibility based on legal counsel and previous settlements in instances that are comparable to this one. The projected liability for these claims would be recorded as a contingent liability until the lawsuits are settled or resolved.

Guarantees and Indemnifications:


A manufacturer assures a customer that a piece of equipment it sells will function properly for three years. The business could have to offer a replacement or a refund if the machine fails during the warranty term. Until the machine’s performance is examined the possible expense of maintaining this guarantee is considered a contingent responsibilities.


Environmental Cleanup Costs:


A business owns a manufacturing that uses toxic substances to function. Environmental pollution is a possibility even when the firm complies with environmental laws. The business sets aside money for expected cleaning expenses, but the projected cleanup expense is still considered a contingent liability until there is a real contamination occurrence.


Pending Tax Disputes:


A company is under review by tax authorities, who believe that certain tax deductions were incorrectly claimed in previous years. The company disagrees with the tax authorities’ position and is fighting the dispute. The potential tax liability, if the company loses the dispute, would be considered a contingent liability until a final resolution is reached.

Loan Guarantees:


A company provides a guarantee for a loan taken by a subsidiary or another entity. If the borrower defaults on the loan, the company may be required to step in and fulfill the obligation. The potential liability under the loan guarantee is treated as a contingent liability until the actual default occurs.

These are just a few examples of contingent liabilities. It’s important for businesses to carefully assess and disclose these potential obligations in their financial statements to provide transparency to investors and stakeholders about the risks the company may face.

 

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