Table of Contents

1.What is Data Science?

A branch of computer science known as “data science” is specifically concerned with transforming data into information and drawing valuable conclusions from it. Data science is so well-liked because the kinds of insights it enables us to get from the data at hand have produced some significant improvements in numerous goods and businesses. We can ascertain a customer’s preferences, the possibility that a product will flourish in a specific market, etc. using these insights.

2. Distinguish between data science and data analytics

Data Analytics

Data Science

Data Science includes data analytics as a subset.

Data Analytics, Data Mining, Data Visualization, etc. are just a few examples of the many subsets that make up the larger field of data science.

Data analytics seeks to highlight the specifics of discovered insights.

Finding significant insights from enormous datasets and coming up with the best potential solutions to solve business problems are the two main objectives of data science.

Just calls for simple programming languages.

Need familiarity with high-level programming languages.

It just focuses on identifying the answers.

In addition to focusing on finding answers, data science also makes future predictions using historical patterns or insights.

A data analyst’s responsibility is to analyse data so that decisions can be made.

It is a data scientist’s responsibility to provide clear and meaningful data visualisations from unprocessed data.

 

3.Why does DS use Python for data cleaning?

The massive data sets must be cleaned up and transformed into a format that data scientists can use. For improved results, it’s crucial to deal with the redundant data by deleting illogical outliers, corrupted records, missing values, inconsistent formatting, etc.

For data cleaning and analysis, Python modules like Matplotlib, Pandas, Numpy, Keras, and SciPy are frequently used. These libraries are used to load, prepare, and perform efficient analyses on the data. For instance, the “Student” CSV file contains details about the students of a certain institute, including their names, standards, addresses, phone numbers, grades, and other information.

4. What are some of the sampling techniques? What is sampling’s major benefit?

Especially when dealing with bigger datasets, data analysis cannot be performed on the entire volume of data at once. It becomes essential to collect certain data samples that may be analysed and utilised to represent the entire population. While doing this, it is imperative to carefully choose sample data from the enormous data collection that accurately reflects the complete dataset.

Based on the use of

SAMPLING

statistics, sampling strategies may be broadly divided into two categories:

Techniques for probability sampling include stratified sampling, simple random sampling, and clustered sampling.
Techniques for non-probability sampling include convenience sampling, quota sampling, snowball sampling, and others.

5 What does data science’s logistic regression mean?

The logit model, or logistic regression, is another name for it. With the help of a linear combination of predictor variables, it is a technique for predicting the binary result.

6 Describe three different biases that may appear during sampling.

There are three different categories of bias in the sampling process, which are:

Selection bias
Under coverage bias
Survivorship bias

 

7 Discuss Decision Tree algorithm

One well-liked supervised machine learning algorithm is the decision tree. Regression and classification are its two principal applications. It enables the division of a dataset into more manageable parts. Both category and numerical data are capable of being handled by the decision tree.

8 Name three disadvantages of using a linear model

  • The assumption of linearity between dependent and independent variables.
  • It is often quite prone to noise and overfitting
  • Linear regression is quite sensitive to outliers

 

9 Describe how to create a decision tree.

  • Describe how to create a decision tree.
  • Use the complete collection of data as your input.
  • Determine the entropy of the target variable and the characteristics of the predictors.
  • Do the math to determine your information gain for all qualities (we gain information on sorting different objects from each other)
  • As the root node, pick the property with the greatest information gain.
    until each branch’s decision node is reached, carry out the same steps on each branch.
  • Consider creating a decision tree to help you choose whether to accept or reject a job offer. The following is the decision tree for this case:

10 How do you build a random forest model?

Many different decision trees are used to create a random forest. The random forest puts all the trees together if the data is divided into many packages and a decision tree is created for each package of data.

  • How to construct a random forest model:
    Choose ‘k’ features at random from a total of’m’ features where k m
  • Calculate the node D using the best split point among the “k” characteristics.
  • Utilize the optimum split to divide the node into daughter nodes.
  • In order to complete the leaf nodes, repeat steps two and three.
  • Create a forest by repeating steps one through four n times to produce n trees.

11 How do you prevent your model from becoming overfit?

A model that is overfitted ignores the wider picture and is only tuned for a relatively tiny quantity of data. To prevent overfitting, there are three basic strategies:

  • Keep the model straightforward by considering fewer variables, which will help to reduce some of the noise in the training data.
  • Utilize cross-validation methods, such as the k-folds method.
  • If you want to avoid overfitting, employ regularisation techniques like LASSO that penalise specific model parameters.

12 Recommender systems: What are they?

Based on user preferences, a recommender system predicts how a user will evaluate a certain product. It can be divided into two sections:

Teamwork in Filtering
For instance, Last.fm suggests songs based on what other users who share your interests frequently listen to. Customers may get the following message along with product recommendations after completing a purchase on Amazon: “Users who bought this also bought…”

Filtering based on content
As an illustration, Pandora uses a song’s characteristics to suggest songs with related characteristics. Instead than focusing on who else is listening to music, we are here focusing on the substance.

13 Why R is used in Data Visualization?

R is utilised for data visualisation because it comes with a large number of built-in functions and libraries. Ggplot2, Leaflet, Lattice, and other libraries are examples of them.

R supports feature engineering as well as exploratory data analysis. Almost every type of graph may be produced with R. R makes it simpler to customise graphics than Python.

14.List the Python libraries that are used for scientific computations and data analysis.

  • SciPy
  • Pandas
  • Matplotlib
  • NumPy
  • SciKit
  • Seaborn

15.Why collaborative filtering is important

Collaborative filtering uses a variety of viewpoints, data sources, and agents to find the right patterns.

16.Describe the power analysis.

The experimental design includes the power analysis as a crucial component. It assists you in figuring out the sample size needed to conclusively determine the impact of a certain size on a cause. Additionally, it enables you to use a certain probability under a sample size restriction.The experimental design includes the power analysis as a crucial component. It assists you in figuring out the sample size needed to conclusively determine the impact of a certain size on a cause. Additionally, it enables you to use a certain probability under a sample size restriction.

17.What is bias?

Underfitting can result from bias, which is an inaccuracy that is introduced into your model as a result of a machine learning algorithm’s oversimplification.

18.What is the Naive Bayes algorithm’s definition of “Naive”?

The Bayes Theorem is the foundation of the Naive Bayes Algorithm paradigm. It gives the likelihood of an event. It is predicated on prior knowledge of circumstances that might be connected to that particular incident.

19. What is the purpose of an A/B test?

When using A and B as the variables in a random experiment, AB testing was performed. This testing technique’s objective is to identify adjustments that need be made to a website in order to maximise or improve a strategy’s results.

20.Ensemble learning: What is it?

The ensemble is technique for bringing together varied group of learners to enhance the model’s predictability and stability. 
There are two different ensemble learning techniques:
Bagging

 

You may create similar learners on small sample populations by using the bagging method. 
It aids in more accurate prediction-making.
Boosting
The weight of an observation can be changed depending on the most recent categorization using the iterative boost method. 
Boosting reduces bias error and aids in the development of robust predictive models.

21. Explain Eigenvalue and Eigenvector

For understanding linear transformations, use eigenvectors. A covariance matrix’s or correlation’s eigenvectors must be computed by data scientists. The directions that a particular linear transformation acts by compressing, flinging, or stretching are known as eigenvalues.

22.Talk about Artificial Neural Networks

Machine learning has been transformed by a unique group of algorithms called artificial neural networks (ANN). It aids in your ability to adjust to shifting input. Consequently, the network produces the best outcome without changing the output criterion.

23.What is Back Propagation?

The foundation of neural net training is back-propagation. The process of fine-tuning a neural network’s weights is based on the error rate recorded in the previous epoch. By enhancing the model’s generalisation, proper tuning lowers error rates and increases the model’s dependability.

24.A Random Forest is what?

A machine learning technique called random forest enables you to complete all kinds of regression and classification tasks. Outlier values and missing values are both treated using it.

25.What significance does bias in selection have?

When picking people, groups, or data to be evaluated, there is no precise randomization implemented, which results in selection bias. It implies that the population that was intended for analysis is not accurately represented by the sample that was used.

26.Describe the K-means clustering technique.

An important unsupervised learning technique is K-means clustering. It is a method for categorising data using a specific set of clusters known as K clusters. It is utilised for grouping to determine data similarity.

27.What is p-value explained?


A p-value allows you to assess the significance of your findings while performing a hypothesis test in statistics. It is an integer in the range of 0 and 1. You can indicate the strength of a given result based on the value.

28.What do you mean by deep learning?


A subcategory of machine learning is deep learning. It focuses on algorithms that were influenced by the artificial neural networks construction (ANN).

29. Describe the procedure for gathering and analysing data in order to use social media to forecast weather.

You can collect social media data using Facebook, twitter, Instagram’s API’s. For example, for the tweeter, we can construct a feature from each tweet like tweeted date, retweets, list of follower, etc. Then you can use a multivariate time series model to predict the weather condition.

30. When should data science algorithms be updated?

You need to update an algorithm in the following situation:

  • You want your data model to evolve as data streams using infrastructure
  • The underlying data source is changingIf it is non-stationarity

31.Why is Normal Distribution Important?

Why is Normal Distribution Important?
A set of continuous variables distributed along a normal curve or in the form of a bell curve is known as a normal distribution. You may think of it as a continuous probability distribution that’s helpful for statistics. When using the normal distribution curve, it is helpful to examine the variables and their interactions.

32What language is most suitable for text analytics? Python or R?

Python has a robust package called pandas that makes it better suited for text analytics. While R lacks this functionality, it enables the use of high-level data analysis tools and data structures.